Linda H. Aiken is the Claire M. Fagin Leadership Professor of Nursing and Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. She directs the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research in the School of Nursing and is a Senior Fellow of the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics at Penn. Dr. Aiken conducts research on the use of performance measures to evaluate interventions and policies that hold promise for improving health services. She has served as a member of the Social Security Advisory Council and the Physician Payment Review Commission, and is a former president of the American Academy of Nursing. Dr. Aiken received the Institute of Medicine’s Lienhard Award and the Joint Commission’s Individual Codman Award for the cumulative impact of her work on improving personal health services.